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Massage Therapy Terminology & Glossary



R

 

 
Info Link
RA-RD
Rabid
Describes an animal that is infected with rabies.
Raccoon eyes
Bruising under the eyes that may indicate a skull fracture.
Rachi/o
Spinal column; vertebrae  
Radi/o
X-Rays; radioactivity; radius  
Radial artery
The major artery in the forearm; it is palpable at the wrist on the thumb side.
Radiant energy
Energy of the electromagnetic spectrum, which includes heat, light, ultraviolet waves, infrared waves, and other forms.
Radiate
Diverge from a central point.
Radiation
The transfer of heat to colder objects in the environment by radiant energy, for example heat gain from a fire.
Radicul/o
Nerve root  
Radioactive material
Any material that emits radiation.
Radioactivity
The process of spontaneous decay seen in some of the heavier isotopes, during which particles or energy are emitted from the atomic nucleus; results in the atom becoming more stable.
Radioisotope
Isotope that exhibits radioactive behavior.
Radiologic Dispersal Device (RDD)
Any container that is designed to disperse radioactive material.
Radius
The bone on the thumb side of the forearm.
Rales
A crackling or bubbling sound in the lungs; a crackling, rattling breath sound that signals fluid in the air spaces of the lungs; also called crackles.
Ramus
A branch of a nerve, artery, vein, or bone.
Range of motion
The range, usually expressed in degrees, through which a joint can move or be moved (ROM).
Range of motion, active
The free movement across any joint of moving levers that is produced by contracting muscles (AROM).
Range of motion, passive
The free movement that is produced by external forces across any joint or moving levers (PROM).
Rape
Sexual intercourse inflicted forcibly on another person, against that person's will.
Rapid extraction technique
A technique to move a patient from a sitting position inside a vehicle to supine on a backboard in less than 1 minute when conditions do not allow for standing immobilization.
Rapport
A harmonious relationship marked by trust, openness, and mutual understanding that you build with your patient/client.
RE-REL
 
Re-
Back; again; backward  
Reassessment
A step within the patient assessment process that is performed at regular intervals to identify and treat changes in a patient's condition. A patient in unstable condition should be reassessed every 5 minutes, whereas a patient in stable condition should be reassessed every 15 minutes.
Rebif (Rx)
Brand name; Rebif or Avonex. Generic name; Interferon Beta-1A, recombinant. Classified as an Antiviral, Antiproliferative, and immunomodulator. It reduces symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis and is used for the treatment of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). It works by using the protein Interferon (not a cure) to help decrease balance problems, weakness, numbness, and slow the disease. Clients who take Avonex or Rebif may experience liver problems, depression, and flu-like symptoms. It is best to never perform deep treatment work, use caution around injection site, and never massage the day of, or day after injection.
-Receptor; -Ceptor
Receiver  
Receptor
A peripheral nerve ending specialized for response to particular types of stimuli; molecule that binds specifically with other molecules, e.g., hormones and neurotransmitters.
Reciprocal inhibition
Stimulation of an antagonist muscle to inhibit action in the prime mover.
Reciprocal innervation
The circuitry of neurons that allows reciprocal inhibition to take place. One can use reciprocal innervation therapeutically to assist in muscle relaxation.
Recovery
The process of regaining strength, composure, and balance. Combating a disorder.  
Recovery position
A side-lying position used to maintain a clear airway in unconscious patients without injuries who are breathing adequately.
Rect/o
Rectum  
Rectum
The lowermost end of the colon.
Red blood cells
Cells that carry oxygen to the body's tissues; also called erythrocytes.
Reduce
Return a dislocated joint or fractured bone to its normal position; set.
Reduction
Return of the spinal column to the anatomic position from lateral flexion. ADduction of the spine; restoring broken bone ends (or a dislocated bone) to its original position.
Redundant messages
Communication that is so repetitious that the people on the receiving end tend to stop listening.  
Referred pain
Pain felt in a surface area far from the stimulated organ; pain felt in an area of the body other than the area where the cause of pain is located.
Reflection
A communication method in which the essence of a message is captured and relayed back by rephrasing what the other person said, rather than repeating it verbatim.  
Reflex
An automatic, involuntary reation to a stimulus.
Reflex arc
The pathway that a nerve impulse follows in a reflex action; neural pathway for reflexes.
Refract
Bend; usually refers to light.
Refractory period
The period of unresponsiveness to threshold stimulation.
Refusal of care
Declined treatment based on an informed consent.
Regional anatomy
The study of the structures of a particular area of the body.
Registration
A regulatory method by which a government agency keeps track of practitioners by informational recordkeeping. These types of programs can entail title protection and practice exclusivity.  
Rehabilitation area
The area that provides protection and treatment to fire fighters and other personnel working at an emergency. Here, workers are medically monitored and receive any needed care as they enter and leave the scene.
Rehabilitation supervisor
In incident command, the person who establishes an area that provides protection for responders from the elements and the situation.
Reiki
A form of energy healing. Reiki involves gentle touch that directs chi (Qi or Ki) for the purpose of strengthening the client's energy system. Qi or chi (in China) and Ki (in Japan) is the term used by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) or Complementary Alternative Medicine (CAM) practitioners meaning universal life force energy.
Relpax (Rx)
Brand name; Relpax. Generic name; Eletriptan hydrobromide. Classified as an Antimigraine. It relieves migraine headache symptoms used for the treatment of Migraine headaches. It works by narrowing blood vessels around the brain and reducing substances in the body that can trigger migraine symptoms such as headache pain, nausea, sensitivity to light and sound. Clients who take Relpax may experience palpitations, dizziness, flushing, or abdominal pain. It is best to create a calming environment, help client on/off the table, and alter positioning when needed.
REM-RES
 
Remission
A reversal of signs and symptoms in chronic disease that can be temporary or permanent.
Ren/o
Kidney  
Renal
Pertaining to the kidney.
Renal calculus
A kidney stone.
Renal pelvis
A cone-shaped collecting area that connects the ureter and the kidney.
Renin
A substance released by the kidneys that is involved with raising blood pressure.
Repeater
A special base station radio that receives messages and signals on one frequency and then automatically retransmits them on a second frequency.
Repolarization
Restoration of the membrane potential to the initial resting (polarized) state.
Repression
A defense mechanism in which feelings or memories that are too painful to bear are blocked from conscious awareness.  
Reproductive system
Organ system that functions to produce offspring.
Requip (Rx)
Brand name; Requip. Generic name; Ropinirole hydrochloride. Classified as an Antiparkinson medication. It increases physical mobility in Parkinson's patients and is used for treatment of Parkinson's Disease. It acts like dopamine (neurotransmitter in the brain), and a systemic chemical messenger. Clients who take Requip may experience cardiac complications, difficulty breathing, fatigue, weakness, impotence, and hallucinations. It is best to help the client on/off the table, adjust positioning for breathing difficulties, and be careful awakening if client falls asleep because abruptness may disorient them.
Res ipsa loquitor
When the EMT or an EMS service is held liable even when the plaintiff is unable to clearly demonstrate how an injury occurred.
Rescue supervisor
In incident command, the person appointed to determine the type of equipment and resources needed for a situation involving extrication or special rescue; also called the extrication officer.
Residual volume
The air that remains in the lungs after maximal expiration.
Respir/o
Breath  
Respiration
The movement of air in and out of the lungs, the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and blood, and the exchange between blood and body tissues; the process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Respiratory rate
The number of breaths in 1 minute.
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
A virus that causes an infection of lungs and breathing passages; can lead to other serious illnesses that affect the lungs, or heart, such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. RSV is highly contagious and spread through droplets.
Respiratory system
Organ system that carries out gas exchange; includes the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs; all structures of the body that contribute to the process of breathing, consisting of the upper and lower airways and their component parts.
Responsiveness
The ability to sense changes (stimuli) in the environment and then to react to them; see also irritability; the way in which a client responds to external stimuli, including verbal stimuli (sound), tactile stimuli (touch), and painful stimuli.
Resuscit/o
To revive  
RET-RH
 
Reticul/o
Network  
Reticular activating system
Located in the upper brain stem; responsible for maintenance of consciousness, specifically one's level of arousal.
Reticular fibers
Delicate, connective tissue fibers that occur in networks and support small structures, such as capillaries, nerve fibers, and basement membrane. Reticular fibers are made of a specialized type of collagen called reticulin.
Reticulum
A fine network.
Retin/o
Retina  
Retina
Light sensitive layer of the eye; contains rods and cones; the light-sensitive area of the eye where images are projected; a layer of cells at the back of the eye that changes the light image into electrical impulses, which are carried by the optic nerve to the brain.
Retinaculum
A network, usually pertaining to a band of connective tissue.
Retinal detachment
Separation of the retina from its attachments at the back of the eye.
Retraction
Backward movement in a horizontal plane.
Retractions
Movements in which the skin pulls in around the ribs durring inspiration.
Retro-
Behind; back; backward  
Retrograde amnesia
The inability to remember events leading up to a head injury.
Retroperitoneal
Behind the abdominal cavity.
Retroperitoneal space
The space between the abdominal cavity and the posterior abdominal wall, containing the kidneys, certain large vessels, and parts of the gastrointestinal tract.
Reverse triage
A triage process in which efforts are focused on those who are in respiratory and cardiac arrest, and different from conventional triage where such patients would be classified as deceased. Used in triage multiple victims of a lightning strike.
Revised Trauma Score (RTS)
A scoring system used for patients with head trauma.
Rhabd/o
Rod  
Rhabdomy/o
Striated or skeletal muscle  
Rhe/o
Flow; current; stream  
Rheumat/o
Watery flow  
Rhin/o
Nose  
Rhiz/o
Root  
Rhod/o
Red; rosy  
Rhonchi
Coarse, low-pitched breath sounds heard in patients with chronic mucus in the upper airways.
Rhythm/o
Rhythm  
Rhytid/o
Wrinkle  
RI-RZ
 
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Nucleic acids that transfer genetic information and control cellular chemical activities; the nucleic acid that contains ribose; acts in protein synthesis.
Ribosomes
Cytoplasmic organelles at which proteins are synthesized.
Ricin
A neurotoxin derived from mash that is left from the castor bean; causes pulmonary edema and respiratory and circulatory failure leading to death.
Right of refusal
The entitlement of both the client and the practitioner to end a session or to decline to receive or give a particular kind of manipulation or technique.  
Rights
What clients are entitled to receive. They are legal, social, or ethical principles of freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people, according to some legal system, social convention, or ethical theory.  
Rigid boundary
A boundary which is very firm and distinct. A rigid boundary severely limits the flow of information and feelings moving in or out.  
Rigor mortis
Stiffening of the body; a definitive sign of death.
Rods
One of the two types of photosensitive cells in the retina.
Roentgen/o
X-Rays  
Role-playing
Usually a structured exercise in which students or colleagues take a role- for instance, as client or practitioner- and act out a specific situation as a way of becoming more comfortable with handling the situation in real life.  
Rolfing
Manipulation of the myofascial system to integrate the physical structure toward greater balance, ease, and centeredness by releasing tension patterns in the connective tissue. Developed by Dr. Ida P. Rolf.  
Root
A word element that contains the basic meaning of the word.
Rooting reflex
An infant reflex that occurs when something touches an infant's cheek, and the infant instinctively turns his or her head toward the touch.
Ropinirole hydrochloride (Rx)
Brand name; Requip. Generic name; Ropinirole hydrochloride. Classified as an Antiparkinson medication. It increases physical mobility in Parkinson's patients and is used for treatment of Parkinson's Disease. It acts like dopamine (neurotransmitter in the brain), and a systemic chemical messenger. Clients who take Requip may experience cardiac complications, difficulty breathing, fatigue, weakness, impotence, and hallucinations. It is best to help the client on/off the table, adjust positioning for breathing difficulties, and be careful awakening if client falls asleep because abruptness may disorient them.
Rose/o
Rosy  
Rot/o, Rotat/o
Turn; revolve  
Rotate
To turn about an axis.
Rotation
Partial turning or pivoting in an arc around a central axis.
Rotigotine (Rx)
Brand name; Neupro. Generic name; Rotigotine. Classified as a Dopamine agonist. It reduces symptoms of early stage Parkinson's Disease and is used for treatment of Parkinson's Disease. It works by helping to restore the balance of dopamine in the brain. Clients who take Neupro may experience fatigue, joint pain, dry mouth, and constipation. It is best to not massage around patch. Abdominal massage may help relieve constipation.
Rosen method bodywork
A method that uses gentle touch coupled with verbal communication to help clients become aware of and release unconscious physical and emotional tension. The practitioner notices changes in muscle tension and shifts in breathing patterns and uses them as a guide to enhance clients' awareness of their internal experience. Developed by Marion Rosen.  
Route of exposure
The manner by which a toxic substance enters the body.
-Rrhage
Bursting forth (of blood)  
-Rrhagia
Bursting forth (of blood)  
-Rrhaphy
Suture  
-Rrhea
Flow; discharge  
-Rrhexis
Rupture  
Rubr/o, Rubr/i
Red  
Rugae
Elevations or ridges, as in the mucosa of the stomach.
Rule of nines
A system that assigns percentages to sections of the body, allowing calculation of the amount of skin surface involved in the burn area.
Rupture
The tearing or disruption of connective tissue fibers that takes place when they exceed the limits of the plastic range.

 

     

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